29 dezembro 2012

Book_Modern earth buildings: Materials, engineering, constructions and applications

Modern earth buildings: Materials, engineering, constructions and applications
Edited by M. Hall, University of Nottingham, UK, R Lindsay, Earth Structures Pty Ltd, Australia and M Krayenhoff, SIREWall Inc, Canada
Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy No. 33
- provides an essential exploration of the materials and techniques key to the design, development and construction of modern earth buildings
- comprehensively discusses design and construction issues, materials for earth buildings, construction techniques and modern earth structural engineering, among other topics
- examines the application of modern earth construction through international case studies
The construction of earth buildings has been taking place worldwide for centuries. With the improved energy efficiency, high level of structural integrity and aesthetically pleasing finishes achieved in modern earth construction, it is now one of the leading choices for sustainable, low-energy building. Modern earth buildings provides an essential exploration of the materials and techniques key to the design, development and construction of such buildings.
Beginning with an overview of modern earth building, part one provides an introduction to design and construction issues including insulation, occupant comfort and building codes. Part two goes on to investigate materials for earth buildings, before building technologies are explored in part three including construction techniques for earth buildings. Modern earth structural engineering is the focus of part four, including the creation of earth masonry structures, use of structural steel elements and design of natural disaster-resistant earth buildings. Finally, part five of Modern earth buildings explores the application of modern earth construction through international case studies.
With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Modern earth buildings is a key reference work for all low-impact building engineers, architects and designers, along with academics in this field.
ISBN 0 85709 026 7
ISBN-13: 978 0 85709 026 3
July 2012
800 pages 234 x 156mm hardback

Overview of modern earth building
M R Hall, University of Nottingham, UK, R Lindsay, Earth Structures Group, Australia, and M Krayenhoff, SIREWALL Inc, Canada
- Introduction
- Definition of modern earth building
- The significance of modern earth building in the current and future construction industries
- Changes in the modern earth building industry
- Managing the demands of the modern construction industry
- References

Hygrothermal behaviour and occupant comfort in modern earth buildings
M R Hall and S Casey, University of Nottingham, UK
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Hygrothermal loads and modelling
- Thermal and hygric properties of earth materials
- Hygrothermal behaviour and passive air conditioning
- Indoor health and air quality
- Sources of further information
- References
- Appendix: nomenclature

Fabric insulation, thermal bridging and acoustics in modern earth buildings
C J Hopfe, Cardiff University and M R Hall, University of Nottingham, UK
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Approaches to fabric insulation
- Thermal bridging theory
- Thermal bridging simulation tools
- Acoustic reverberation
- Sources of further information
- References
- Appendix: nomenclature

Modern earth building codes, standards and normative development
H Schroeder, Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany
- Introduction: A short history of building codes for using earth as a building material
- Types of ‘standards’ for earth building
- Normative documents for earth building
- Selecting the parameters for earth building standards
- New developments in earth building standards
- Conclusions
- References

Passive house design: a benchmark for thermal mass fabric
L Rongen, Rongen Architects, Germany
- Introduction
- Description of Passive House
- Functional principles of Passive House
- Case studies of Passive Houses in different climates
- Examples of Passive House architecture in Germany
- Future trends
- Sources of further information
- References


Soil materials for earth construction: properties, classification and suitability testing
L N Reddi, Florida International University, A K Jain and H-B Yun, University of Central Florida, USA
- Introduction
- Soil formation
- Soil types
- Soil Consistency
- Compaction of soil
- Conclusion
- References
- Appendix

Alternative and recycled materials for earth construction
A Dawson, University of Nottingham, UK
- Introduction
- Classification of alternative and recycled materials
- Types of alternative material
- Characteristics of alternative and recycled materials
- Form of recycled and alternative materials: bulk or binder
- Leaching of materials
- Physical and mechanical properties of alternative and recycled materials
- The use and re-use life cycle
- Future trends and conclusions
- Sources of further information
- References
- Appendix: abbreviations

Soil mechanics and earthen construction: Strength and mechanical behaviour
C E Augarde, Durham University, UK
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Basic soil mechanics
- Fundamental soil behaviour
- Effective stress
- Models of shear strength for soils
- Unsaturated soil behaviour
- The use of soil mechanics in earthen construction
- Future trends
- Sources of further information
- References

Soil stabilisation and earth construction: Materials, properties, and techniques
M R Hall, K B Najim and P Keikhaei Dehdezi, University of Nottingham, UK
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Lime stabilisation
- Cement and pozzolans
- Bituminous binders and emulsions
- Synthetic binders, polymers and adhesives
- Fibre reinforcement
- Selection tool for modern stabilised earth construction
- References

Integral admixtures and surface treatments for modern earth buildings
R Kebao and D Kagi, Tech-Dry Building Protection Systems Pty Ltd, Australia
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Integral admixtures for modern earth construction
- Surface treatment for modern earth buildings
- Future trends
- Sources of information
- References

Weathering and durability of earthen materials and structures
J-C Morel, Q-B Bui, and E Hamard, University of Lyon, France
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Water content increase in earthen walls
- Strategies to increase durability of earth walls
- Current tests for assessing the durability of earthen materials
- Surface coatings and finishes
- Long-term performance testing
- Future trends and conclusions
- Acknowledgements
- Sources of further information
- References

History of earth building techniques
P Jaquin, Integral Engineering, UK
- Introduction
- Earth building techniques in Asia
- Earth building techniques in Africa
- Earth building techniques in Europe
- Earth building techniques in North America
- Earth building techniques in South America
- Earth building techniques in Australia
- Conclusions
- References

Stabilised soil blocks for structural masonry in earth construction
B V Venkatarama Reddy, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India
- Introduction
- Soil stabilisation techniques
- Production of stabilized soil blocks (SSBs)
- Characteristics of stabilized soil blocks (SSB)
- Cement-soil mortars for stabilized soil block (SSB) masonry
- Stabilised soil block masonry
- Long-term performance, repair and retrofitting of stabilized soil block (SSB) buildings
- Case studies of cement stabilized soil blocks (CSSB) buildings
- References

Modern rammed earth construction techniques
D Easton and T Easton, Rammed Earth Works, USA
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Material sourcing
- Proportioning and mixing
- Formwork
- Installation
- Future trends and conclusions
- Sources of further information

Pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) construction techniques
D Easton, Rammed Earth Works, USA
- Introduction
- Materials used for pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) construction
- The forming system
- Reinforcement of pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) walls
- Equipment for proportioning, mixing and placement
- The pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) method
- Conclusion
- Appendix: Estimating the costs of PISE construction

Conservation of historic earth buildings
G Calabrese, Architect, Australia
- Introduction
- Common forms of deterioration on historic earth buildings
- Conservation of earth architecture
- Case study of the UNESCO heritage site of Diriyah in the Atturaif region of Saudi Arabia
- Case study of earth buildings in Italy: Loreto Aprutino in the Abruzzo Region
- Conclusions
- Sources of further information
- References


Earth masonry structures: arches, vaults and domes
J F D Dahmen University of British Columbia, Canada and J A Ochsendorf, MIT, USA
- Introduction
- Structural theory for arches, vaults and domes
- Earth masonry arches
- Earth masonry vaults
- Earth masonry domes
- Material properties of earth masonry structure
- Design and construction criteria for earth masonry structures
- Future trends
- Acknowledgements
- Sources of further information
- References

Structural steel elements within stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walling
R Lindsay, Earth Structures Group, Australia
- Introduction
- Structural steel for stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walling
- Design parameters for using structural steel within stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walling
- The use of steel lintels for stabilised rammed earth (SRE) applications
- Steel columns embedded within stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walls
- Structural systems for elevated or ‘precast’ stabilised rammed earth (SRE) panels
- North American structural steel
- Conclusion
- Acknowledgements
- Sources of further information

Natural disasters and earth buildings: Resistant design and construction
H W Morris, University of Auckland, New Zealand
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Earthquakes and earth buildings
- Earthquake engineering
- Wind and storms
- Earth building design for wind resistance
- Flood hazards and earth buildings
- Volcanoes and landslides
- Future trends
- Sources of further information
- References

Embankments and earthfill dams: Construction materials and techniques
W Wu, T G Berhe and T Ashour, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Austria
- Introduction
- Types and selection of embankment dams
- Zoning of embankment dams and construction materials
- Embankment dams construction specifics
- Stability analysis of embankment dams
- Maintenance of embankment dams
- Future trends
- Sources of further information
- References


North American modern earth construction
M Krayenhoff, SIREWALL Inc, Canada
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Seventh generation thinking and earth construction
- The interplay of indoor and outdoor weather
- Applications of earth construction in hot climates
- Applications of earth construction in wet climates and cold climates
- Optimizing rammed earth compressive strength
- North American style rammed earth
- Case studies of North American earth construction
- Design elegance of modern earth buildings
- Future trends
- Sources of further information
- Acknowledgements

Australasian modern earth construction
R Lindsay, Earth Structures Group, Australia
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Uses of stabilized rammed earth in different regions of Australia
- Approaches to material type and selection
- Formwork and construction techniques: the ‘Stabilform system’
- Stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walls
- Designing for thermal comfort
- Standards and specifications for modern earth construction in Australia
- The cost of stabilised rammed earth (SRE) construction in Australia
- Case studies of modern earth buildings in Victoria, Australia
- Future trends
- Sources of further information
- Acknowledgements
- References

European modern earth construction
M R Hall, University of Nottingham and W Swaney, Earth Structures (Europe) Ltd, UK
- Chapter précis
- Introduction
- Conservation and revival of traditional techniques
- Modern earth construction techniques
- Case studies of modern earth buildings throughout Europe
- Future trends
- Acknowledgements
- Sources of further information
- References
- Appendix: European earth building contractors and specialist advisers

Modern rammed earth construction in China
RK Wallis, SIREWALL China, GIGA and AArchitecture, China
- Introduction
- Challenges for modern rammed earth construction in China
- Opportunities for modern rammed earth construction in China
- Approaches to material type and selection
- Construction techniques and formwork
- Case studies
- Future trends
- References

20 dezembro 2012

Boas Festas_ArquitecturasdeTerra / Arq2T. Atelier

O ArquitecturasdeTerra / Arq2T. Atelier deseja a todos os clientes, amigos, parceiros e familiares os votos sinceros de um Natal Feliz em boa companhia e um Próspero Ano de 2013, pleno de sucesso!
ArquitecturasdeTerra  Arq2T. Atelier wishes to all our clients, friends, partners and family a Merry Christmas and a Prosperous 2013, full of success!
ArquitecturasdeTerra / Arq2T. Atelier desea a todos sus clientes, amigos, compañeros y familiares los sinceros deseos de Feliz Navidad en buena compañía y un próspero año 2013, lleno de éxito!
Die ArquitecturasdeTerra / Arq2T. Atelier wünscht allen Kunden, Freunden, Partnern und Familie die aufrichtigen Wünsche für ein frohes Weihnachtsfest in guter Gesellschaft und ein erfolgreiches Jahr 2013 voller Erfolg!
Pedro, Eva e (Inês)

Outstanding Earthen Architecture in Europe_2011 Award

Outstanding Earthen Architecture in Europe 2011 Award

17 dezembro 2012

Rammed Earth House in Maun_Botswana

These  photos are from the construction process of a rammed earth house built in Maun, Botswana, by Arch. Paul Marais, researcher from the University of Wales Institute Cardiff in association with the Centre for Alternative Technology in Wales on the study of sustainable technology in southern Africa.
Using soil escavated from the site as well as additional soil from aprox. 80km away (to improve structural aspects but also the aesthetics) this is a beatifully simple but significant example of earth construction as a resilient and universal material / technology.
Ramming the earth was done by hand inside plywood forms, which were reused after ramming for the roof structure.
The earth walls turned out fantastic, and the building respond nice and cool specially in the 35+ tough temperatures common in Maun.

" Buildings are energy and they use energy in their daily use. Sustainable Design looks at optimising energy use and harnessing the energy that arrives daily. Buildings have a certain amount of energy used in the process of building them and then they require energy for coolth and warmth, light and dark and suppling water and removing waste.
The energy that goes into building the building, creating it's materials, feeding the artisans and getting it all to the building site, we call the embodied energy.
This is tricky to measure exactly as you can imagine (how much oil and petrol and farmers braai went into that peanut butter that mainly produced a sleepy constructor?) so we use generalised measures and common sense . We know that materials found on site have a low embodied energy so we use natural materials sourced on site where possible. We must also consider the energy use during the buildings lifetime.
This may seem insignificant at first (what's a few heaters compared to ton's of coal used to make concrete) but it can be higher than the embodied energy as it will be over a very long period.
Buildings can be orientated to use the sun's energy for heating and cooling electricity generation and to reduce water and waste energy needs. Another form of energy that we consider in sustainable design is the energy of the occupants of the building.
People have strong cultural and social links to the physical space that they inhabit - sustainable design investigates their needs, wants and desires, creating solutions that fit!"
Paul Marais

13 dezembro 2012

07 dezembro 2012

Exposição 'De terre et d'argile'_Alger

L'architecture de terre sur la voie de la modernité

Une initiative pour sensibiliser les citadins et les futurs architectes sur la nécessité de rétablir ces modes de construction qui n'ont rien à envier aux méthodes dites modernes.
L'exposition «De terre et d'argile» dédiée aux architectures et techniques de construction traditionnelles et modernes en terre, s'est ouverte samedi à l'Esplanade Riadh el Feth à Alger et se tiendra jusqu'au 17 décembre prochain.
Yasmine Terki est architecte des monuments historiques et spécialiste des architectures et des constructions de terre auprès du ministère de la Culture. Après l'exposition «Terres d'Afrique et d'ailleurs» réalisée par ses soins, lors du 2ème Festival culturel panafricain, et notamment à l'occasion de «Tlemcen capitale de la culture islamique 2011», l'architecte aux mains incontestablement liées aux transformations minutieuses de la terre, nous revient avec ses lumineux projets et l'exposition «De terre et d'argile» sur Alger jusqu'au 17 décembre prochain.
Parallèlement aussi à la première édition du Festival culturel international de promotion des architectures de terre «Archi'terre», qui se tiendra à Alger du 18 au 22 novembre avec un riche programme d'ateliers pratiques et de conférences destiné aux architectes et aux étudiants algériens en architecture et en génie civil, l'exposition «De terre et d'argile» vise incontestablement à faire découvrir et vulgariser les architectures de terre et leurs techniques au grand public afin de le sensibiliser à l'importance de ce patrimoine culturel et urbain. Une matière disponible, gratuite, écologique, modulable, renouvelable, la terre selon le bon sens est aussi capable de répondre aux normes de confort actuelles et c'est dans une même optique, que le public peut découvrir à Riadh El Feth, dans le hall de l'exposition, les spécificités surprenantes de l'architecture de terre regroupant toutes les méthodes utilisant la terre crue comme matériau de construction. Il existe, par ailleurs, plusieurs types.
Le pisé, le torchis, l'adobe et, plus récemment, la brique de terre comprimée. Des décorations murales en terre, réalisées par une vingtaine d'artisans africains et européens, parmi eux, des artisans algériens, nigérians, français et portugais afin de mettre en relief l'universalité des architectures de terre. Des jarres en terre crue et toute une variété de couleurs de sable sont également exposée dans le hall pour mettre en exergue la diversité de la terre. L'exposition est une occasion de mêler la peinture à la sculpture et d'offrir une panoplie de formes aux alliances des expressions artistiques utilisées généralement afin de meubler l'intérieur des habitations en terre. L'exposition permet également un voyage visuelle des ksour algériens à travers un diaporama proposant une série de photographies aériennes et terrestres de 13 ksour algériens figurant parmi les «ksour protégés d'Algérie», bâtis en terre ou en pierre capturés sous l'objectif de Kays Djilali. Les photos ont été prises dans le cadre de deux campagnes photographiques organisées par le ministère de la Culture en 2009 et 2011, reflétant le génie et la beauté architecturale des premiers bâtisseurs et qui répond parfaitement aux besoins naturels et pratiques de leurs régions comme le ksar de Kenadsa (Béchar), Chetma (Biskra), Amenthan (Batna) ou El Mihane (Illizi). D'autres parties de l'exposition sont destinées à montrer des techniques de construction en terre et à la découverte d'édifices ultramodernes réalisés partout dans le monde, selon ces méthodes. Plusieurs photographies de bâtisses à différents usages sont exposées afin de montrer l'aspect moderne et utilitaire des architectures de terre. Un saut dans le temps et une découverte de projets futuristes, une simplicité et un accord entre les éléments de construction avec la nature dans une parfaite harmonie.

A l'exemple des constructions en terre au Mexique, aux Etats-Unis, en Allemagne ou au Chili où se trouve d'ailleurs une université construite en torchis (murs de terre crue avec une ossature en bois). En outre, un espace de lecture contenant pas moins de 300 ouvrages relatifs aux architectures de terre et au patrimoine est mis à la disposition du public. Deux films documentaires intitulés Les révolutions de la terre et Les nouveaux habits de la terre du réalisateur français François Lebayon, seront projetés au public tout au long de l'exposition. Une visite virtuelle et mirifique de l'oasis rouge, Timimoun (Adrar) réalisée grâce au scanner laser en trois dimensions est aussi proposée afin d'agrémenter la ballade des visiteurs.
L'architecture de terre est en soi, une forme moderne déjà appliquée dans des pays développés, ce qui ne saurait alimenter l'idée reçue que les constructions de terre sont synonymes de terres pauvres, d'autant plus qu'il est plus de l'ordre du génie urbain de trouver ce genre d'architecture à base de matériaux les plus simples et les plus disponibles. L'exposition se révèle donc comme une initiative pour sensibiliser les citadins et les futurs architectes sur la nécessité de rétablir ces modes de construction qui n'ont rien à envier aux méthodes dites modernes. Faire revivre des méthodes ancestrales et les réhabiliter sur le chemin de la modernité tout en sauvegardant et en épanouissant le patrimoine comme les ksour d'Algérie. Par ailleurs, envisager en vue des progrès à obtenir dans le domaine de l'architecture, la promotion de l'utilisation de ce type d'architecture étant donné ses avantages inégalables pour certaines régions, notamment au Sud.
Fonte da notícia aqui

06 dezembro 2012

ArquitecturasdeTerra_13,14 e 15 Dez_Arqcoop_Lisboa

Só falta 1 inscrição para confirmar!!!

13, 14 e 15 de Dezembro
Conheça os conceitos teóricos e as ferramentas práticas associadas à construção com terra crua, adquirindo os conhecimentos necessários à implementação em projecto e obra das diversas tecnologias tradicionais e modernas de construção com terra!!!
- Introdução, especificidade, diversidade e universalidade da construção com terra.
- Sustentabilidade, práticas construtivas e gestão de recursos.
- Técnicas construtivas com terra crua.
- Identificação, análise e ensaios de solos para construção.
- Construção de modelo protótipo em Taipa.
13, 14 e 15 de Dezembro
5.ª e 6.ª Feira, das 19h00 às 22h00, e Sábado, das 10h00 às 19h00
14 horas 
 Actividade formativa validada pela Ordem dos Arquitectos, permite a obtenção de 8 créditos para efeitos da formação obrigatória em temáticas opcionais, complementar ao estágio profissional.
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